Friday, January 23, 2015

Drawing is a technical skill not an inborn talent

Every time I teach a class and suggest people make a quick value sketch before attacked fabric with scissors, there's always some poor soul who sadly regrets not having a talent for drawing.
Well there are something you are born with - like long legs, or red hair (I have one but not the other!! though I guess red hair is achievable!!)  and there are some things you learn as you go along.  Like learning to drive, learning to eat with a knife and fork (though I feel like my grandson will never master that!), learning to read and learning to write.  Learning to write - hmm - isn't that a bit like - er - drawing????  You copy shapes, right?  What is drawing? Copying begin with simple ones, copying printed ones, and then gradually get more complex and make up your own.  Is anyone born who is able to write without any instruction?

But - for the purposes of making art quilts, does one really need to be able to draw well?
The value sketch is just a rough road map, now you could draw an elegant map of how to get to your house from the nearest grocery store - or you could draw a rough sketch.  The latter would be perfectly functional - and that's all you need to plan out your quilt..
Here are some steps and tips I have found helpful from both books and a few drawing lessons: 

SubjectThe first step is to decide what you are going to draw! What is the best way of finding your composition? I think it’s helpful to use a Viewfinder or crop tools. You can actually buy cardboard frames with clear plastic in divided into 4 or 9…or you can make one – with or without the plastic..or you can simply cut two L shapes from card. I find the Ls easier when working from photographs because you can adjust the frame size. If you are working live, whether outside or in, then a Viewfinder you can hold with one hand is easier: simply move the frame (usually a rectangle, but whatever you want the shape of the piece to be) nearer or further from you. Most of us are used to doing this with a camera, so we already have helpful experience of this step. Sometimes I’ll take out my camera and just look through the lens to find an interesting composition.
when it comes to looking for ideas for quilts - I'll also do research on the internet.  I wanted to make a quilt with the outlines of hawthorn trees on it, for example - well they don't grow round here so I couldn't just go and photograph them (though that would be the best thing) instead I just searched for "images of hawthorn trees" and then made a quick sketchy copy of what I found.

The Beginning 
On a piece of paper draw in the first four lines: the outside edges, in the same shape and ratio of sides to top/bottom as your view finder or crop tools. Then, very faintly, indicate the “horizon” line, the line that is level with your eyes as you sit or stand. For example if you’re looking at a sea scene, the level of the sea against the sky is the horizon line, the end of the street in a street scene and so on.
Always begin with those first four lines - these are "grounding lines".

The edge connections.  Then make little marks (dashes or dots!) where the objects within the scene, whether trees or bottles or kittens,  intersect with those first four lines. This makes sure that you get everything into the drawing that you have selected in your view finder or crop tools. I know if I don’t do this I invariably run out of space!! It’s easy to see the half way mark on the view finder (vf) and the half way mark on the scene. For example if I like through the vf and see the edge of a roof. Where does that edge intersect with the frame of the vf? Is it half way up the left hand side? A quarter of the way from the top? As quilters we’re used to eyeballing these kinds of distances.
So if the roof line intersects with the vf on the left hand side, at ¼ of the way down from its top edge then I make a little mark on my paper at the same point i.e. 1/4 of the way down from the top edge.

I actually use this exact same procedure of looking for half way points, intersection points etc, in cutting out shapes freehand for a piece when I assemble a quilt.
And you use this same procedure when it comes to enlarging the shape onto fabric for your quilt when you come to cutting out.  So it's good to get in the practice!
Being able to do this eliminates the need for a full size cartoon when making a quilt based on a sketch.  his saves, time, gas, paper and pollution - what else could you ask for?!

Two dimensions is easier than three.  If you’re working from an actual scene as opposed to a 2-d photograph, it helps to reduce the 3 dimensional scene to only two. How d’you do that? By closing one eye. Before you do that, look at an object in front of you first with just your left, then just with your right eye. See how the object jumps?? That makes it very difficult to draw, because your drawing is only in 2 dimensions. So close one eye if you find that everything keeps jumping around!! Which one to close? Your less dominant one. 

 Look at what you’re drawing.  As you draw, look frequently at the object you are drawing if you want it to be accurate. Though one teacher (can’t remember if it was Hans Hoffman, someone of that ilk) – used to make his students look at an object in one room for 5 minutes, then sprint back to the adjacent room to actually draw it!! He felt that the exercise improved visual memory!! It certainly would improve one’s level of fitness!

 Elements (line and shape) only.  As you draw the contour lines, don’t think “boat” or “roof” or “bottle”, think instead “this line goes from ¼ of the way down the left hand side across to a point about halfway across and 3/4 of t he way down the rectangle (or square). Just think about lines going from point A to point B. Like little trails on a map.  
Sometimes it’s easier to think about drawing the negative shapes – i.e. the spaces behind things, while focusing on them you are less likely to be distracted by the actuality of the object.
thinking about objects in terms of shapes helps you to make natural and interesting arrangements much more easily.  If I gave you 3 triangles and 5 squares each of different sizes I bet you could come up with half a dozen pleasing arrangements very quickly.  If instead I said draw me a picture based on this photograph of 3 trees and five houses, I think you'd find it a lot more difficult.

8Angles  If the lines are angled, the easiest thing to do is to hold up your pencil against the view or the photograph and line it up with the angle…then, holding it carefully in the same position, mark that angle on the page. If that doesn’t work for you, then you could use a protractor. I like the nice big ones. Or…when working from a photograph, you can line up(i.e. make sure that the verticals and horizontals on both photo and sketch paper are all exactly vertical and horizontal!) the photograph adjacent to your sketch paper and put a long ruler on the angle on the photograph, such that it protrudes beyond and onto the correct place on the paper. I use this for cutting out correct angles too. I simply line up the sketch with my fabric and continue the angle out from my drawing to the cloth. Try it, it works!!

 Major shapes first.  Get the big shapes and the longest lines in place first. Details are far less important, don’t even think about them until all the big stuff is in place!!! No you can’t mess about putting in all those little windows yet! This is also Very True in designing quilts. And don’t think about shading or colour yet either!
Remember:  you generally put on your top and pants before adding earrings!

Light and Dark.  Before you start shading, decide where the light is coming from (or...Where you'd LIKE it to come from) ….if you’re inside, set up a single light source, if working plein air the most interesting times to go out and draw are early or late on a sunny day – because of the nice long shadows! Having shadows creates depth and adds to the value range. If you take a picture of nearly any quilt, scan into photoshop and increase the contrast (Image-adjustments-contrast), it will improve it. Why? Because you increased the value range. What increases the range? Light!
If you are working from a photograph, look to see where the darkest darks and lightest lights are. What was the direction of light in the scene? You don’t have to necessarily follow this (Rembrandt didn’t always) but it’s better if you use light and shadow thoughtfully.
It’s easiest to spot the very darkest values first, so start with those. I think it’s helpful to have a little value scale (even if it’s just 5 values: light, med light, med, med dark, dark) drawn out on the side of the paper to refer to. Do the darkest darks, note where the lightest lights are and reserve those. I often put a little pencil dot in them so I know “don’t shade this!”. Then look for the mediums. Do make sure you have a good range of values. If you look at our very best art quilters you will see that in all their major works, there is a great range. And remember the Photoshop experiment!! Push the light values lighter (if you’re using a pencil simply erase) and the dark values darker.

Maturing on the wall.  Finally, when you feel you’ve finished the drawing, pin it up on the design wall to mature for a few days or weeks…if there’s anything untoward it will make itself known! Believe me!

Anybody who can write their signature can draw - with practice.
If you have been, thanks for reading!  Elizabeth  


Elsie Montgomery said...

Oh, this is super. I do know how to draw, but loved the clarity and fun of this great explanation. You bring delight to my day!

Leigh in Portland (we are not burning down) said...

Wow! This is INCREDIBLY HELPFUL!!! Thank you so much for this post. I find that drawing is a skill. No one hits a home run the first time someone hands them a baseball. The right tools + a lot of practice = good drawings. I lack practice. Your outline will really help me to get to where I want to be much faster. Thanks!

Leigh in Portland (we are not burning down) said...

Wow! This is INCREDIBLY HELPFUL!!! Thank you so much for this post. I find that drawing is a skill. No one hits a home run the first time someone hands them a baseball. The right tools + a lot of practice = good drawings. I lack practice. Your outline will really help me to get to where I want to be much faster. Thanks!

Kathy said...

I've never taken the time to learn/practice drawing skills since I work totally improv and abstract. You have just clarified for me how to make many of my design solutions much easier. You are such a treasure trove of knowledge. Thank you!

Audrey said...

This post is so helpful because you are giving me specifics that I can practice. I'm going to save this one with my Dyeing to Design notes. Thank you for these tips and words of encouragement.

Edith said...

Such a helpful post, thank you! :)

elle said...

How wonderful of you to put this down in such a clear and helpful manner! thanks :)

Edith said...

Can you recommend any books on drawing for beginners please? Thank you!

Helen Howes said...

I'm convinced that everone can actually draw; just that most people don't like their drawings for one reason or another.. but anyone, if given a pencil, can draw a recognisable cat or letter A...

Helen Howes

mzjohansen said...

Excellent post Thank You!